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  • Spanish Silver: General Introduction
  • Charles and Johanna Introduction

    Charles and Johanna Coinage


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    250 dpi

    2 R     Mexico     Assayer G    (G-M)  Nesmith 45d           Charles and Johanna - Late series

    Obverse:  CAROLVS : ET : IOHANA . REGES    [in center] G     M
    Reverse:   [Jerusalem cross] HISPANIARVM : ET : INDIARVM .      [in center] PLV  /  SVL /  TR

    Weight:  106.5 g   (6.90 grams)                  Diameter:  27.6 mm

    Comments:  This is a colonial two reales from the rule of Charles I and Johanna (1518-1558) from the later series displaying the pillars with the waves. Small rings or annulets in the legend on the coin have been transcribed above as colons and stops. According to Nesmith G-M and M-G coins are the most expertly made in the series. Records verify that Gutiérrez was the assayer when the royal investigator, Francisco Tello de Sandoval, inspected the mint from May 27 through July 15, 1545 as part of his four year misson in Mexico to inspect all royal offices. Nesmith suspects the G-M and M-G coins were made during this period so as to have the highest quality products to show the inspector, thus they possibly date to 1545. See the introduction for specifics on the assayer and the inspector. According to the Nesmith classification this example consists of the two reales obverse design 19 showing the lion with a tongue (Nesmith, p. 108) joined with reverse design a (Nesmith, p. 109). The obverse legend is legend 10 (Nesmith, p. 114) and the reverse legend is legend b (Nesmith, p. 116). An example that has a less well centered reverse that the present example is found in Nesmith, plate 8.

    On both the obverse and reverse a small dot is apparent in the center of the coin, on the obverse just below the intersection of the shield and on the reverse at the top of the first stroke in the V (just below the two larger rondules that designate the denomination). These dots were made by a depression in the die caused by a compass that was used to describe the circles that border the legend. On the obverse, to the right of the shield, is the M mintmark for Mexico and to the left is the initial G for the assayer, who is identified as Juan Guiterrez. In the legend the letter R in CAROLVS was either repunched into the die or doubled due to die chatter during striking. There also appears to be a die break at the bottom of the S. Other small die breaks occur at the first stroke of the following E (moving left) in ETand from near the bottom of the T moving up through the top punctuation annulet moving through the I and into the O in IOHANA. On the reverse the motto is abbreviated PLVS ULTR, with the final A missing to make PLVS VLTRA (More beyond). The two large dots between the columns represent the denomination of the coin, two reales. Also, note there is a small die break appearing as a small dot over the second I in HISPANIA as well as a break on the first leg of the following letter A.

    Provenance:  From the Robert H. Gore, Jr. Numismatic Collection.

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    Hibernia Coppers: p. 3 Section Contents Spanish Cobs: p.1

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